Why Ordinary People Are Turning to VPNs2019년 11월 10일
In 1996, a Microsoft software engineer named Gurdeep Singh-Pall developed a peer-to-peer tunneling protocol (PPTP), which is widely considered the basis of what we now call virtual private networks (VPNs).
From the beginning, VPNs have been largely been utilized by three groups:
- Companies concerned with information security
- Users concerned about privacy
- People in countries where governments restricted access to information and communication
Two decades after the advent of PPTP, the reasons why we use VPNs essentially haven’t changed. What has changed is the number of internet users now utilizing VPNs. The number of VPN users is now climbing by tens of millions of people each year, and that number is projected to accelerate.
What’s behind this acceleration? An increasing number of people are concerned about their online privacy as data harvesting becomes more intrusive, more complete. And as internet use becomes intrinsically tied to our everyday lives, more governments are moving to restrict the type of information that their citizens can access.
A decade ago, only a small percentage of internet users were utilizing VPNs. Because of this, there was a sort of stigma—which still lingers today—around VPNs.
The desire for Privacy Is Normal, Not Suspicious
To some, particularly in the U.S., there’s an idea that the desire for online privacy equates to a quest for anonymity in order to undertake illicit, nefarious activities. This narrative conjures images of the dark web.
But over the past few years, we’ve become aware of how pervasive online data capturing is. And at the same time, we’ve seen how our personal data can be sold or compromised by third parties. Because of that, people who just a short while ago were asking “Why would I need online privacy? I have nothing to hide,” are now asking “How can I better protect myself?”
Consider something as seemingly benign as looking up symptoms for a medical condition online. 80% of Americans have searched health-related topics, most without a second thought. What could go wrong?
When you look up a medical symptom, like any other page you visit on the internet, someone is capturing that data. The consequences of this could range from awkward—looking up a potentially embarrassing ailment only to have ads served back to you while in the company of others, too dangerous—once this data is sold in third-party apps, a buyer may be able to steal your medical identity.
For reasons like the above, many people—in nations where access to information and communication are relatively unhindered—are turning to VPNs simply for security and protection.
Access to Information, Communication, and Entertainment Isn’t Radical
Another narrative revolves around the idea that VPNs are the territory of radicals or militants. As more governments move to clamp down on communication and information, the notion of VPNs as simply a tool of activists or rebels fighting regimes is going away. In reality, most VPN users do so to access entertainment, messaging apps, news websites, and social media.
In this way, we can see that the vast majority of people using VPNs in countries with repressive regimes are simply doing so in order to use the internet like anyone else. VPN usage isn’t nearly as radical in this sense as a government trying to control every detail of information that its citizens can see. China recently provided a good example of what this means.
In May, China moved to block all versions, in any language, of Wikipedia. The timing of which (like previous blocks of Wikipedia) coincides with the anniversary of the 1989 events at Tiananmen Square. It’s quintessentially Orwellian. In the dystopian masterpiece 1984, Orwell wrote, “Who controls the past controls the future: who controls the present controls the past.”
And China is far from alone. Turkey has blocked all of Wikipedia since 2017 in the name of “national security.” Iran consistently blocks articles it wants to hide from its citizens.
There’s something darkly unsettling about regimes so authoritarian that they try to hide the history of their recent past, shoveling it like dust into a rubbish bin, in order to try and gain support and control of the populace. There’s danger there, not only for the citizens of those countries, but for the rest of us hopeful of learning from past mistakes to create a better future as well.
As we’ve seen with Russian election meddling and the current distrust of Huawei, your data may seem safe but the likelihood of it ending up in the hands of a regime who exploits you is increasing by the day.
VPNs May Be the New Normal
If you look at the list nations with the highest percentage of VPN users, there’s a direct correlation between that list and government interference with an open internet. It’s a desire for access to information, communications with family abroad, or entertainment that makes VPNs so popular in these nations.
And in countries where we can actually stream our favorite series from an app or access Wikipedia, VPN use is still climbing as a result of data privacy concerns.
As long as governments and corporations continue to attempt to control our online experiences, the percentage of people utilizing VPNs is only going to grow. The old tropes of online privacy and access being the territory of the radical and nefarious are being ameliorated as the people in control of the internet force us to think of how we can protect and enable ourselves online.
The real question for many of us, now, is simply how can we find a VPN that promises us security and privacy in the way that we deserve?